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People have been very interested in fossil bones for a very long time. The ancient Chinese thought fossil bones were the bones of magical dragons. The fossil bones were ground up and used as medicine. There are many stories that have come from people trying to explain why bones became stuck in rock. Perhaps the story of Medusa, a creature so ugly she could turn people to stone just by looking at them, comes from ancient Greeks looking at fossil bones stuck in rock. Perhaps the legends of giants come from people finding giant sized bones.
Some of the earliest attempts of using fossils in a scientific way come from China and Ancient Greece. The Chinese naturalist, Shen Kou, used bamboo fossils to show climate changes. He found fossilized bamboo in places that, at his time, were too dry for bamboo to live. An even earlier Greek philosopher, Xenophanes, found fossilized sea shells on dry land, concluding that the dry land must have been covered by water at some time.
In the 1800's there was a worldwide interest in geology and paleontology. This interest was sparked by two men, Charles Marsh and Edward Cope, who were responsible for discovering 142 species of dinosaurs. Both Marsh and Cope were wealthy, and used their personal wealth and influence to find dinosaur bones. Somehow, the two men got into a personal feud to see who could discover more dinosaurs. They even went as far as stealing the other's bones, and spying to get ahead. People called Marsh's and Cope's feud the Great Bone War. The two men and their assistants would discover enough dinosaur bones to keep paleontologists working for several decades.
These photos of Edward Cope (left) and
Charles Marsh (right) are from around the year 1910.
They also discovered the Morrison Formation. The Morrison Formation is a layer of rock that holds more Jurassic dinosaur bones than any other formation in North America. Years after the bone wars, people got tired of looking for dinosaurs. It wasn't until the 1960's when scientists uncovered new facts about dinosaurs, and people's interest began to grow again.
Hylonomus in considered by many scientists to be the first reptile. Hylonomus, like other reptiles, probably evolved from amphibians. Its thick-scaled skin and hard-shelled eggs allowed Hylonomus to live in much dryer conditions than could amphibians.
Hylonomus fossils are often found in the bottom of very old fossilized tree stumps. It is believed that they may have hibernated in the tree stumps, or that they fell into the hollow trees while looking for food and became trapped.